Sarcoidosis

SarcoidosisSARCOIDOSIS is a systemic disease of unknown etiology characterized by the formation in the tissues of granulomas consisting of epithelioid cells and isolated giant cells of Pirogov - Langhans type or a foreign phone Granulomas of the same type, rounded ("stamped"), clearly distinguished from the surrounding tissue. Unlike tuberculosis tubercles no caseous necrosis. Sarcoidosis occurs predominantly in young and middle aged, slightly more often in women. Affects almost all organs, mainly the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, spleen, rarely, kidney, skin, eyes, bones etc. the Most frequently observed lesion of the respiratory system. The symptoms for. Stage 1 is characterized by an increase intrathoracic lymph nodes. When stage II along with this determines expressed interstitial changes and foci of various sizes, mainly in the middle and lower lung. In stage III revealed a significant diffuse fibrosis in the lungs and large, usually confluent foci, as well as severe emphysema often bolesno-dystrophic and bronchiectasis cavities and pleural seals. Approximately one-third of patients with stages I and II there are no noticeable subjective disorders and the disease is detected at rentgenotomograficheskie study. For subacute or chronic, often wavy; marked weakness, fever, chest pain, dry cough, loss of appetite. Rales in the lungs listens rarely and in small numbers. Sometimes sarcoidosis begins acutely with high temperature, swelling of the joints of the limbs, the appearance of erythema, mainly on the skin of the legs, increasing the external lymph nodes. In the blood - the tendency lymphopenia and monocytosis, less eosinophilia, ESR is within normal limits or blurred increased. Characteristic feature is the reduction of General and local sensitivity to tuberculin, and therefore the Mantoux test is usually negative. Typical positive reaction Queima. In stage III of the disease, these symptoms are more pronounced, gradually increasing shortness of breath and cyanosis. Disease duration from several months to many years. In addition to clinical and radiological picture, the diagnosis is confirmed by the results of histological or cytological examination of the lymph nodes, skin, mucous membrane of the bronchi and lung tissue, where find items sarcoidal granuloma. In this way possible to differentiate sarcoidosis from tuberculosis, various disseminate in the lung and other diseases. The prognosis in most cases favorable. In stage III in the slowly progressive pulmonary-cardiac insufficiency, possibly fatal..



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